Freedom is the best of things
which can be found around the world
if you can bear the burden
Bishop Thomas of Strängnäs, Sweden (1439)
If people would be angels, liberty would be assured and societal problems would be non-existent.
If people would be rascals, only the head-rascals may enjoy some freedom. A free society would be beyond imagination.
Real people reside somewhere in between. Basically we are self-centered seekers of advantage and pleasure. On the other hand the great majority have been endowed with some measure of empathy and sympathy besides the gift of reason. Rather miraculously, these meager resources have allowed us to erect institutions, which support fairly free societies.
Liberty means that we can pursue the meaning of life, choose our settings and select our aims. In other words we are free to search for a higher directive, each in his or her own, inimitable way. Alternatively we can set ourselves up as the object of devotion. Thus the citizen becomes an idol, provided with the prerogatives of power and rights while eschewing the attendant duties. On that track personal autonomy will wither away, democracy will decay and liberty will be lost.
In democracies a continuous tug of war is going on between liberty and equality. In the custodial welfare state, personal responsibility and freedom are constantly losing ground. That is why I am here voicing my concern and taking a stand against government tutelage and inflated egalitarianism.
While we have to care for the indigent, genuine human progress and emancipation can only be based on personal freedom and individual responsibility. The LIBERA Foundation has been launched as an independent platform for actors of intellectual integrity, pursuing this long-term quest.
Vague abstractions like equality, brotherhood, justice – and liberty can
deliberately be stretched beyond recognition. They can be and have been used as
vehicles for ruthless agitation. An abstract idea acquires real content as an
operative value only in open interaction with competing ideas.
Values are the source of all societal norm systems. They can be understood as tacit meta-rules of the game, structuring our social and political reality. Values are fairly steady, but in due course creeping change will cause a palpable, sometimes dramatic revamping of public governance.
A top-down totalitarian or authoritarian government is incapable of reading or understanding the hearts and minds of the people. Inevitably it will drift into stagnation or regression. The inherent value conflict will sooner or later erupt like a destructive earthquake.
Democracy is founded on the equality of the voters. Basically it is a
value-free mechanism for realizing the will of the majority, an empty shell to
be filled with some kind of substance. Hence a set of historically conditioned
values seems to be indispensable for a sustainable democracy.
More often than not different values are mutually incompatible, at least in part. Liberty against equality is the classic example. According to game theory, a self-consistent rule system can be constructed only in trivial cases. Ergo no intellectually rationally “correct” resolutions can be found for difficult societal conflicts, though mendacious schemes may be falsified.
Joint decisions can be reached only by reconciling conflicts of values and interests – which may have been basically irreconcilable in the first place. This is the challenge of democratic politics, where the art of compromise comes to the fore. Something must always be sacrificed; nobody will ever be fully satisfied.
The prolonged and complicated decision making can become a serious drawback. The great advantage is that in a free society, changing values do not create irreconcilable tensions. The inevitable structural adjustment does not run out of control.
Through their constitutions, modern democracies have codified and protected a
fair assortment of individual freedoms and rights. But the craving for
socio-economic equality is deeply entrenched in the human mind. This inbuilt
dichotomy is part and parcel of democracy. The conflict between individual
rights and the demands of the majority will stay in the focus of democratic
politics. This struggle of values cannot and should not be decided, one way or
another. Yet the outcome holds the future of democracy in the balance.
Political competition is by its nature a zero-sum game, where myopic self-interest is rewarded but the common cause often suffers. In contrast, a viable society is dependent on constructive, value-enhancing plus-sum play, where success depends on honesty and openness. These values constitute the backbone of our collective moral capital, the most vital but scarcest of resources. It preserves the functionality of democracies by keeping zero-sum play within reasonable bounds.
Personal freedom is a self-evident aim of a democratic society. Paradoxically freedom evaporates when it becomes an end in itself. Short-circuited self-realization is not a sustainable option. We must one way or another serve a higher purpose. Liberty endows power to the individual, but its utilization presupposes a fair amount of responsibility for oneself, for one’s nearest, for the community and for the environment. In brief, liberty calls for at least a modicum of good faith.
The degree of personal freedom and the success of democratic societies stand in direct proportion to the available moral capital. This is a historical fact, acutely perceived by Alexis de Tocqueville in his Democracy in America (1835-40). “I am inclined to think that if faith is wanting in him [the citizen], he must be subject, and if he be free, he must believe.” Morality is the price of liberty.